Twelve-month effects of the Groningen active living model (GALM) on physical activity, health and fitness outcomes in sedentary and underactive older adults aged 55–65

Johan de Jong, Koen Lemmink, Abby C. King, Mark Huisman, Martin Stevens

Onderzoeksoutput: ArticleAcademicpeer review


Objective: To determine the effects on energy expenditure, health and fitness outcomes after 12 months of GALM.
Methods: Subjects from matched neighbourhoods were assigned to an intervention (IG) (n = 79) or a waiting-list control group (CG)
(n = 102). During the 12 months the IG attended two series of 15 moderately intensive GALM sessions once a week and the CG attended one
series after a 6-month waiting-list period.
Results: Significant time effects were found for energy expenditure for recreational sports activities (EERECSPORT), other leisure-time
physical activity (EELTPA) and total physical activity (EETOTAL). EERECSPORT increased over 12 months for both groups while the significant time group interaction for EELTPA revealed that the CG continuously increased over 12 months and the IG improved in the first 6 months but decreased from 6 to 12 months. Further significant time effects were found for performance-based fitness but no group effects.
Conclusion: Participation in GALM improved EERECSPORT after 12 months, which was reflected in increases in performance-based fitness.
The increase in EELTPA seemed to be a short-term effect (6 months), which may explain the lack of improvement in other health indicators.
Practice implications: To further increase EELTPA, more attention should be paid to behavioural skill-building during the GALM program.
Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)167-176
TijdschriftPatient education and counseling
Nummer van het tijdschrift66
StatusPublished - 2007



  • fitness
  • ouderen

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