Background: A positive association between obesity based on body mass index (BMI) and periodontitis has been reported. Fat tissue-related systemic inflammation acts as the link to periodontal comorbidities of obesity. However, the BMI is unable to distinguish fat and fat-free tissues. More precise measures are required to evaluate body composition, including fat and fat-free tissues. This study aimed to determine the sex differences in the association between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured body composition (i.e., fat mass and muscle mass) and phenotypes with periodontitis. Methods: Cross-sectional data of 3892 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) study 2011‒2014 were analyzed. Adiposity indices (fat mass index [FMI] and percentage body fat [%BF]) and muscle mass index (MMI) were calculated. The participants were categorized by the quintiles of FMI, MMI, and %BF. Body composition phenotypes were categorized as: low adiposity-low muscle (LA-LM), low adiposity-high muscle (LA-HM), high adiposity-low muscle (HA-LM), or high adiposity-high muscle (HA-HM), respectively. Periodontitis was defined by the CDC/AAP (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American Academy of Periodontology) criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted, stratified by sex. We further adjusted for white blood cell (WBC) counts in the sensitivity analysis. Results: Restricted cubic splines revealed non-linear associations between body composition indices and periodontitis risk. Women with a higher FMI (odds ratio for Q5 vs. Q1 [ORQ5vs1] = 1.787, 95% confidence interval: 1.209–2.640) or %BF (ORQ5vs1 = 2.221, 1.509–3.268) had increased odds of periodontitis. In addition, women with HA-LM phenotype were more likely to develop periodontitis (OR = 1.528, 1.037–2.252). Interestingly, the WBC count, a systemic inflammatory biomarker, attenuated these associations. No statistically significant associations were found in men. Conclusions: The association between DXA-measured body composition and phenotypes with periodontitis differs per sex. Only in women higher adiposity indices and HA-LM phenotype were associated with an increased risk of periodontitis.
Originele taal-2English
TijdschriftJournal of Periodontology
StatusPublished - 28 aug. 2023


  • geslachtsverschillen
  • lichaamscompositie
  • parodontitis


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