Energy dissipative steel cushions (EDSCs) are simple units that can be used to join structural members. They can absorb a substantial amount of seismic energy due to their geometric shapes and the ductile behavior of mild steel. Large deformation capability and stable hysteretic behavior were obtained in monotonic and cyclic tests of EDSCs in the framework of the SAFECLADDING project. Discrete numerical modeling strategies were applied to reproduce the experimental results. The first and second models comprise two-dimensional shell elements and one-dimensional flexural frame elements, respectively. The uncertain points in the preparation of the models included the mesh density, representation of the material properties, and interaction between contacting surfaces. A zero-length nonlinear link element was used in the third attempt in the numerical modeling. Parameters are recommended for the Ramberg–Osgood and bilinear models. The obtained results indicate that all of the numerical models can reproduce the response, and the stiffness, strength, and unloading and reloading curves were fitted accurately.
Gullu, A., Smyrou, E., Khajehdehi, A., Ozkaynak, H., Bal, I. E., Yuksel, E., & Karadogan, F. (2019). Numerical modelling of energy dissipative steel cushions. International journal of steel structures, 19(4), 1331-1341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13296-019-00213-7