What makes audiences resilient to disinformation? Integrating micro, meso, and macro factors based on a systematic literature review

Jülide Kont (First author), Wim Elving, Marcel Broersma, Çiğdem Bozdağ

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Despite increased attention since 2015, there is little consensus on why audiences believe or share disinformation. In our study, we propose a shift in analytical perspective by applying the concept of resilience. Through a systematic literature review (n = 95), we identify factors that have been linked to individuals’ resilience and vulnerability to disinformation thus far. Our analysis reveals twelve factors: thinking styles, political ideology, worldview and beliefs, pathologies, knowledge, emotions, (social) media use, demographics, perceived control, trust, culture, and environment. By applying the results to the socio-ecological model (SEM), we provide a comprehensive view on what constitutes resilience to disinformation, delineate between different levels of influence, and identify relevant gaps in research. Our conceptualization contributes to an under-theorized field, in which the term resilience is much used yet rarely sufficiently defined.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalCommunications The European Journal of Communication Research
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 May 2024

Keywords

  • disinformation
  • resilience
  • vulnerability
  • misinformation
  • fake news
  • conspiracy theory belief

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