Translation and validation of the Dutch Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale for older adults

Marlies Feenstra, Nynke Smidt, Barbara C van Munster, Nancy W Glynn, Sophia E de Rooij

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: The original Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale (PFS) was developed to assess perceived fatigability in older adults. The objective of this study was to translate the PFS into Dutch and investigate its validity and reliability among hospitalized older adults aged ≥70 years.

METHODS: The PFS was translated into Dutch and pretested for comprehensibility by the Three-Step Test Interview method. The factor structure underlying the final version was evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analyses (EFA). Internal consistency of the identified subscales was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was evaluated by hypothesis testing. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland Altman plots.

RESULTS: The validation sample included 233 patients. CFA of the original factor structure resulted in poor model fit in our Dutch sample. EFA of PFS physical and mental subscales resulted in a two-factor solution underlying the data with good internal consistency of the identified subscales (Cronbach's alpha: 0.80-0.92). Five out of six hypotheses were confirmed, indicating good construct validity. Retest assessments were performed among 50 patients and showed good reliability for both the physical (ICC: 0.80, 95%CI: 0.68; 0.88) and mental subscale (ICC: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.68; 0.89).

CONCLUSION: The Dutch PFS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess fatigability in older hospitalized patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number234
JournalBMC Geriatrics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • aged
  • factor analysis, statistical
  • fatigue/diagnosis
  • Humans
  • psychometrics
  • reproducibility of results
  • surveys and questionnaires
  • translations


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