The impact of parenting styles on adolescent alcohol use: the TRAILS Study

Leenke Visser, Andrea F. de Winter, Wilma A.M. Vollebergh, Frank C. Verhulst, Sijmen A Reijneveld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Aims: To investigate the influence of parenting styles (overprotection, emotional warmth, and rejection) in early adolescence on regular alcohol use in late adolescence.
Methods: We analyzed data from the first three waves (mean ages: 11.09, 13.56, and 16.27 years, respectively) of a population-based prospective cohort study of 2,230 adolescents, conducted between 2001 and 2007. Adolescents reported on parental overprotection, emotional warmth, and rejection (T1). Regular alcohol use was defined as six and seven glasses or more a week for girls and boys, respectively. We further assessed family socioeconomic status, parental divorce, parental alcohol use, educational level of the adolescent, and alcohol use at baseline.
Results: Parental overprotection had the strongest relationship to regular alcohol use: adolescents who perceived more parental overprotection were at increased risk of developing regular alcohol use, even after adjustment for several confounders. Rejection was not related to adolescents' alcohol use and, after adjustment for the other variables, neither was emotional warmth.
Conclusion: Overprotective parenting is a determinant of future regular adolescent alcohol use and therefore health professionals should pay particular attention to those adolescents who have overprotective parents. The role of adolescent characteristics in the relationship between overprotection and alcohol use deserves further study
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165–172
Journal European addiction research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


  • parenting styles
  • alcohol use
  • adolescents


Dive into the research topics of 'The impact of parenting styles on adolescent alcohol use: the TRAILS Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this