The angiotensin receptor blocker telmisartan slows progression of kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), yet many patients remain at high risk for progressive kidney function loss. The underlying mechanisms for this response variation might be attributed to differences in angiotensin-1 receptor occupancy (RO), resulting from individual variation in plasma drug exposure, tissue drug exposure, and receptor availability. Therefore, we first assessed the relationship between plasma telmisartan exposure and urinary-albumin-to-creatinine-ratio (UACR) in 10 patients with T2D and albuminuria (mean age 66 years, median UACR 297 mg/g) after 4 weeks treatment with 80 mg telmisartan once daily. Increasing telmisartan exposure associated with a larger reduction in UACR (Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) = −0.64, P = 0.046, median change UACR: −40.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI): −22.9 to −77.4%, mean telmisartan area under the curve (AUC) = 2927.1 ng·hour/mL, 95% CI: 723.0 to 6501.6 ng·hour/mL). Subsequently, we assessed the relation among plasma telmisartan exposure, kidney distribution, and angiotensin-1 RO in five patients with T2D (mean age 60 years, median UACR 72 mg/g) in a separate positron emission tomography imaging study with [11C]Telmisartan. Individual plasma telmisartan exposure correlated with telmisartan distribution to the kidneys (PCC = 0.976, P = 0.024). A meaningful RO could be calculated in three patients receiving 120 mg oral telmisartan, and although high exposure seems related to higher RO, with AUC0–last of 31, 840, and 274 ng·hour/mL and corresponding RO values 5.5%, 44%, and 59%, this was not significant (P = 0.64). Together these results indicate, for the first time, a relationship among interindividual differences in plasma exposure, kidney tissue distribution, RO, and ultimately UACR response after telmisartan administration.
- kidney health
- kidney disease