In this study, the relationship between shame proneness, guilt proneness, behavioral self-handicapping, and skill level was examined in elite youth soccer players (N = 589, Mage = 16.8, SD = 1.8). Mediation analyses showed that shame proneness had a positive direct relationship with self-handicapping and a weak negative indirect relationship with skill level. Guilt proneness was shown to have a negative direct relationship to self-handicapping and a positive weak indirect relationship to skill level. Shame proneness may, thus, stimulate behavioral self-handicapping, whereas guilt proneness may discourage behavioral self-handicapping in soccer players.
- self handicapping