Self-tracking of physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

Thea Kooiman, Martijn de Groot, Klaas Hoogenberg, Wim P Krijnen, Cees P van der Schans, Adriaan Kooy

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The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an online self-tracking program on physical activity, glycated hemoglobin, and other health measures in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventy-two patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. All participants received usual care. The intervention group received an activity tracker (Fitbit Zip) connected to an online lifestyle program. Physical activity was analyzed in average steps per day from week 0 until 12. Health outcome measurements occurred in both groups at baseline and after 13 weeks. Results indicated that the intervention group significantly increased physical activity with 1.5 ± 3 days per week of engagement in 30 minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity versus no increase in the control group (P = .047). Intervention participants increased activity with 1255 ± 1500 steps per day compared to their baseline (P < .010). No significant differences were found in glycated hemoglobin A1c, with the intervention group decreasing -0.28% ± 1.03% and the control group showing -0.0% ± 0.69% (P = .206). Responders (56%, increasing minimally 1000 steps/d) had significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin compared with nonresponders (-0.69% ± 1.18% vs 0.22% ± 0.47%, respectively; P = .007). To improve effectiveness of eHealth programs, additional strategies are needed.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340-349
JournalComputers, informatics, nursing : CIN
Issue number7
Early online date4 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018


  • diabetes
  • physical activity
  • wearable technology


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