Power to Ammonia and Urea

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic


Ammonia is heavily used in agriculture as a fertilizer and in industry as a raw material for the production of various organic nitrogen compounds. Its high hydrogen content and its established infrastructure for both storage and distribution makes ammonia a prominent candidate for storing fluctuating renewable energy. The Haber-Bosch heterogenous reaction of hydrogen and nitrogen on an iron-based catalyst is used today at large scale ammonia production sites. The current industrial hydrogen production is dominated by fossil energy sources. The traditional Haber-Bosch process can become green and carbon-free if renewable electricity is used for hydrogen generation. However, a continuous operation of power to ammonia can be challenging with a fluctuating renewable energy source. Techno-economic models show that electrolysis and the hydrogen supply chain is the main dominating cost factor of power to ammonia.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPower to Fuel
Subtitle of host publicationHow to Speed Up a Hydrogen Economy
EditorsGiuseppe Spazzafumo
PublisherElsevier Ltd.
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9780128228135
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2021


  • ammonia
  • green urea
  • water electrolysis
  • renewable electricity
  • green hydrogen
  • energy storage
  • power


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