Optimizing Resources and Increasing the Coverage of Internet-of-Things (IoT) Networks: An Approach based on LoRaWAN

Matheus Araujo Gava, Helder Roberto Oliveira Rocha, Menno Jan Faber, Marcelo Eduardo Vieira Segatto, Heinrich Wörtche, Jair Adriano Lima Silva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


A resource optimization methodology is proposed for application in long range wide area networks (LoRaWANs). Using variable neighborhood search (VNS) and a minimum-cost spanning tree algorithm, it reduces the implementation and the maintenance costs of such low power networks. Performance evaluations were conducted in LoRaWANs with LoRa repeaters to increase coverage, in scenario where the number and the location of the repeaters are determined by the VNS metaheuristic. Parameters such as spread factor (SF), bandwidth and transmission power were adjusted to minimize the network’s total energy per useful bit (Ebit
) and the total data collection time. The importance of the SF in the trade-off between (Ebit) and time on-air is evaluated, considering a device scaling factor. Simulation results, obtained after model adjustments with experimental data, show that, in networks with few associated devices, there is a preference for small values of SF aiming at reduction of Ebit. The usage of large SF’s becomes relevant when reach extensions are required. The results also demonstrate that, for networks with high number of nodes, the scaling of devices over time become relevant in the fitness function, forcing an equal distribution of time slots per SF
to avoid discrepancies in the time data collection.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jan 2023


  • internet of things
  • sensors
  • networks
  • smart systems


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