On the potential of wearable bioimpedance for longitudinal fluid monitoring in end-stage kidney disease

Lucas Lindeboom, Seulki Lee, Fokko Wieringa, Willemijn Groenendaal, Carlo Basile, Frank van der Sande, Jeroen Kooman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) has proven to be a promising non-invasive technique for fluid monitoring in haemodialysis (HD) patients. While current BIS-based monitoring of pre- and post-dialysis fluid status utilizes benchtop devices, designed for intramural use, advancements in micro-electronics have enabled the development of wearable bioimpedance systems. Wearable systems meanwhile can offer a similar frequency range for current injection as commercially available benchtop devices. This opens opportunities for unobtrusive longitudinal fluid status monitoring, including transcellular fluid shifts, with the ultimate goal of improving fluid management, thereby lowering mortality and improving quality of life for HD patients. Ultra-miniaturized wearable devices can also offer simultaneous acquisition of multiple other parameters, including haemodynamic parameters. Combination of wearable BIS and additional longitudinal multiparametric data may aid in the prevention of both haemodynamic instability as well as fluid overload. The opportunity to also acquire data during interdialytic periods using wearable devices likely will give novel pathophysiological insights and the development of smart (predicting) algorithms could contribute to personalizing dialysis schemes and ultimately to autonomous (nocturnal) home dialysis. This review provides an overview of current research regarding wearable bioimpedance, with special attention to applications in end-stage kidney disease patients. Furthermore, we present an outlook on the future use of wearable bioimpedance within dialysis practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2048-2054
Number of pages7
JournalNephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 5 Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • humans
  • renal dialysis/methods
  • quality of life
  • kidney failure, chronic/therapy
  • water-electrolyte imbalance/etiology
  • wearable electronic devices
  • electric impedance


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