Objective and subjective predictors of perceived cleanliness in train stations

Martijn Vos, Mark van Hagen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Cleanliness is one of the key determinants of overall customer satisfaction in train stations. Customers’ perception of cleanliness is not limited to cleaning only but depends on multiple predictors. A better understanding of these predictors may contribute to the optimisation of perceived cleanliness in train stations. The current study was designed to examine how objective predictors (measures of cleaning quality), subjective predictors (e.g., customers’ perception of lighting, scent, staff), and demographic variables relate to perceived cleanliness in train stations. Data on cleaning quality were gathered by trained cleaning inspectors and data on subjective predictors of cleanliness were obtained through surveys collected at 25 train stations in the Netherlands (N = 19.206). Data were examined using correlation and regression analysis. Positive and significant correlates of perceived cleanliness in train stations were found, including: perception of scent, lighting, colour, and staff. In regression analysis, customers’ perception of scent and lighting appeared to be powerful predictors of perceived cleanliness. These findings underline that customers’ perception of cleanliness is not only influenced by cleaning quality, but also by other predictors, such as scent, lighting, colour, and staff behaviour.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-117
JournalTransportation Research Procedia
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • facilities management
  • train stations
  • cleanliness

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