Moral considerations on social robots in education: A multi-stakeholder perspective

Matthijs Smakman, Paul Vogt, Elly A. Konijn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Social robots are a promising new technology for primary education. However, they also introduce practical and moral challenges and there is an increasing demand for guidelines for a responsible, safe introduction of social robots. In this study, we identified and compared the moral considerations associated with the introduction of social robots in primary education from the viewpoint of direct and indirect stakeholders by conducting focus group sessions (N = 118). In total, we identified and compared stakeholder considerations related to 17 moral values. Overall, each of the stakeholder groups considered social robots a potentially valuable tool for education. Many similarities and only few conflicting views across the various stakeholder groups were found. Particularly among the teachers, parents, and policymakers, there were many similarities on the issues reported and their considerations were often aligned. These insights into the moral considerations of the various stakeholders involved, provide a solid base to develop guidelines for implementing social robots in education as requested by scholars and society.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104317
Number of pages14
JournalComputers & education
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • elementary education
  • cultural and social implications
  • human-computer interface
  • improving classroom teaching
  • media in education


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