How Do Type 2 Diabetes Patients Value Urban Integrated Primary Care in China? Results of a Discrete Choice Experiment

Xin Wang, Kuimeng Song, Paiyi Zhu, Pim Valentijn, Yixiang Huang, Stephen Birch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objectives: Fragmented healthcare in China cannot meet the needs of the growing number of type 2 diabetes patients. The World Health Organization proposed an integrated primary care approach to address the needs of patients with chronic conditions. This study aims to measure type 2 diabetes patients' preferences for urban integrated primary care in China. Methods: A discrete choice experiment was designed to measure type 2 diabetes patient preferences for seven priority attributes of integrated care. A two-stage sampling survey of 307 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in 16 community health stations was carried out. Interviews were conducted to explore the reasons underpinning the preferences. A logit regression model was used to estimate patients' willingness to pay and to analyze the expected impact of potential policy changes. Results: Travel time to care providers and experience of care providers are the most valued attributes for respondents rather than out-of-pocket cost. Attention to personal situation, the attentiveness of care providers, and the friendliness and helpfulness of staff were all related to interpersonal communication between patients and health care providers. Accurate health information and multidisciplinary care were less important attributes. Conclusions: The study provides an insight into type 2 diabetes patients' needs and preferences of integrated primary care. People-centered interventions, such as increasing coverage by family doctor and cultivating mutual continuous relationships appear to be key priorities of policy and practice in China.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 23 Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • adult
  • China
  • choice behavior
  • diabetes mellitus, type 2/therapy
  • female
  • humans
  • male
  • middle aged
  • patient preference/statistics & numerical data
  • primary health care/organization & administration
  • surveys and questionnaires
  • urban population


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