Factors associated with phantom limb pain: a 31/2-year prospective study

Joline C Bosmans, Jan H B Geertzen, Wendy J Post, Cees van der Schans, Pieter U Dijkstra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalence of phantom (limb) pain over time and to analyse factors associated with phantom (limb) pain in a prospective cohort of amputees.

DESIGN: A multicentre longitudinal study.

PATIENTS: One hundred and thirty-four patients scheduled for amputation were included.

METHODS: Patients filled in questionnaires before amputation, and postal questionnaires six months, 1(1/2) years and 2(1/2) years to a maximum of 3(1/2) years after amputation. Preoperative assessment included patients' characteristics, date, side and level of, and reason for amputation. The follow-up questionnaires assessed the frequencies of the experienced phantom pain, prosthetic use and walking distance. The occurrence of phantom pain was defined as phantom pain a few times a day or more frequently.

RESULTS: Pre- and postoperative questionnaires were available filled in by 85 amputees (33 females and 52 males). The percentage of lower limb amputees with phantom pain was the highest at six months after amputation, and of upper limb amputees at 1(1/2) years. In general, more women than men experienced phantom pain. One and a half years and 2(1/2) years after amputation the highest percentages of the lower limb amputees used their prosthesis more than 4 hours a day (66%), after that time this percentage decreased to 60%. The results of the two-level logistic regression analysis to predict phantom pain show that phantom pain was less frequently present in men (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12), in lower limb amputees (OR = 0.14) and that it decreased in due course (OR = 0.53 for 1 year).

CONCLUSION: Protective factors for phantom pain are: being male, having a lower limb amputation and the time elapsed since amputation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-53
Number of pages10
JournalClinical rehabilitation
Volume24
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amputation
  • Amputation Stumps
  • Amputees
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Lower Extremity
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands
  • Pain, Postoperative
  • Phantom Limb
  • prevalence
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Upper Extremity
  • Young Adult
  • Journal Article
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Cite this

Bosmans, Joline C ; Geertzen, Jan H B ; Post, Wendy J ; van der Schans, Cees ; Dijkstra, Pieter U. / Factors associated with phantom limb pain : a 31/2-year prospective study. In: Clinical rehabilitation. 2010 ; Vol. 24, No. 5. pp. 444-53.
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Factors associated with phantom limb pain : a 31/2-year prospective study. / Bosmans, Joline C; Geertzen, Jan H B; Post, Wendy J; van der Schans, Cees; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

In: Clinical rehabilitation, Vol. 24, No. 5, 2010, p. 444-53.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Factors associated with phantom limb pain

T2 - a 31/2-year prospective study

AU - Bosmans, Joline C

AU - Geertzen, Jan H B

AU - Post, Wendy J

AU - van der Schans, Cees

AU - Dijkstra, Pieter U

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalence of phantom (limb) pain over time and to analyse factors associated with phantom (limb) pain in a prospective cohort of amputees.DESIGN: A multicentre longitudinal study.PATIENTS: One hundred and thirty-four patients scheduled for amputation were included.METHODS: Patients filled in questionnaires before amputation, and postal questionnaires six months, 1(1/2) years and 2(1/2) years to a maximum of 3(1/2) years after amputation. Preoperative assessment included patients' characteristics, date, side and level of, and reason for amputation. The follow-up questionnaires assessed the frequencies of the experienced phantom pain, prosthetic use and walking distance. The occurrence of phantom pain was defined as phantom pain a few times a day or more frequently.RESULTS: Pre- and postoperative questionnaires were available filled in by 85 amputees (33 females and 52 males). The percentage of lower limb amputees with phantom pain was the highest at six months after amputation, and of upper limb amputees at 1(1/2) years. In general, more women than men experienced phantom pain. One and a half years and 2(1/2) years after amputation the highest percentages of the lower limb amputees used their prosthesis more than 4 hours a day (66%), after that time this percentage decreased to 60%. The results of the two-level logistic regression analysis to predict phantom pain show that phantom pain was less frequently present in men (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12), in lower limb amputees (OR = 0.14) and that it decreased in due course (OR = 0.53 for 1 year).CONCLUSION: Protective factors for phantom pain are: being male, having a lower limb amputation and the time elapsed since amputation.

AB - OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalence of phantom (limb) pain over time and to analyse factors associated with phantom (limb) pain in a prospective cohort of amputees.DESIGN: A multicentre longitudinal study.PATIENTS: One hundred and thirty-four patients scheduled for amputation were included.METHODS: Patients filled in questionnaires before amputation, and postal questionnaires six months, 1(1/2) years and 2(1/2) years to a maximum of 3(1/2) years after amputation. Preoperative assessment included patients' characteristics, date, side and level of, and reason for amputation. The follow-up questionnaires assessed the frequencies of the experienced phantom pain, prosthetic use and walking distance. The occurrence of phantom pain was defined as phantom pain a few times a day or more frequently.RESULTS: Pre- and postoperative questionnaires were available filled in by 85 amputees (33 females and 52 males). The percentage of lower limb amputees with phantom pain was the highest at six months after amputation, and of upper limb amputees at 1(1/2) years. In general, more women than men experienced phantom pain. One and a half years and 2(1/2) years after amputation the highest percentages of the lower limb amputees used their prosthesis more than 4 hours a day (66%), after that time this percentage decreased to 60%. The results of the two-level logistic regression analysis to predict phantom pain show that phantom pain was less frequently present in men (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12), in lower limb amputees (OR = 0.14) and that it decreased in due course (OR = 0.53 for 1 year).CONCLUSION: Protective factors for phantom pain are: being male, having a lower limb amputation and the time elapsed since amputation.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Adult

KW - Aged

KW - Amputation

KW - Amputation Stumps

KW - Amputees

KW - Female

KW - Follow-Up Studies

KW - Humans

KW - Longitudinal Studies

KW - Lower Extremity

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

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KW - Surveys and Questionnaires

KW - Time Factors

KW - Upper Extremity

KW - Young Adult

KW - Journal Article

KW - Multicenter Study

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

KW - adolescent

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KW - oud

KW - amputatie

KW - amputatie stompen

KW - geamputeerden

KW - vrouwelijk

KW - vervolgstudies

KW - mensen

KW - longitudinal studies

KW - lagere ledematen

KW - mannelijk

KW - middelbaar

KW - nederland

KW - pijn, postoperatieve

KW - fantoom lidmaat

KW - overwicht

KW - enquetes en vragenlijsten

KW - tijdsfactoren

KW - bovenste ledematen

KW - jongvolwassene

KW - tijdschriftartikel

KW - multicenter study

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

U2 - 10.1177/0269215509360645

DO - 10.1177/0269215509360645

M3 - Article

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SP - 444

EP - 453

JO - Clinical rehabilitation

JF - Clinical rehabilitation

SN - 0269-2155

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