Environmental and energy system analysis of bio-methane production pathways: a comparison between feedstocks and process optimizations

Frank Pierie, Christian van Someren, René M.J. Benders, Jan Bekkering, Wim van Gemert, Henri C. Moll

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The energy efficiency and sustainability of an anaerobic green gas production pathway was evaluated, taking into account five biomass feedstocks, optimization of the green gas production pathway, replacement of current waste management pathways by mitigation, and transport of the feedstocks. Sustainability is expressed by three main factors: efficiency in (Process) Energy Returned On Invested (P)EROI, carbon footprint in Global Warming Potential GWP(100), and environmental impact in EcoPoints. The green gas production pathway operates on a mass fraction of 50% feedstock with 50% manure. The sustainability of the analyzed feedstocks differs substantially, favoring biomass waste flows over, the specially cultivated energy crop, maize. The use of optimization, in the shape of internal energy production, green gas powered trucks, and mitigation can significantly improve the sustainability for all feedstocks, but favors waste materials. Results indicate a possible improvement from an average (P)EROI for all feedstocks of 2.3 up to an average of 7.0 GJ/GJ. The carbon footprint can potentially be reduced from an average of 40 down to 18 kgCO2eq/GJ. The environmental impact can potentially be reduced from an average of 5.6 down to 1.8 Pt/GJ. Internal energy production proved to be the most effective optimization. However, the use of optimization aforementioned will result in les green gas injected into the gas grid as it is partially consumed internally. Overall, the feedstock straw was the most energy efficient, where the feedstock harvest remains proved to be the most environmentally sustainable. Furthermore, transport distances of all feedstocks should not exceed 150 km or emissions and environmental impacts will surpass those of natural gas, used as a reference. Using green gas as a fuel can increase the acceptable transportation range to over 300 km. Within the context aforementioned and from an energy efficiency and sustainable point of view, the anaerobic digestion process should be utilized for processing locally available waste feedstocks with the added advantage of producing energy, which should first be used internally for powering the green gas production process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)456-466
JournalApplied Energy
Volume160
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2015

Keywords

  • anaerobic digestion
  • green gas
  • bio-methane
  • life cycle analysis
  • energy crops
  • organic waste

Cite this

@article{71f8c01a03474a38bb8997826243e765,
title = "Environmental and energy system analysis of bio-methane production pathways: a comparison between feedstocks and process optimizations",
abstract = "The energy efficiency and sustainability of an anaerobic green gas production pathway was evaluated, taking into account five biomass feedstocks, optimization of the green gas production pathway, replacement of current waste management pathways by mitigation, and transport of the feedstocks. Sustainability is expressed by three main factors: efficiency in (Process) Energy Returned On Invested (P)EROI, carbon footprint in Global Warming Potential GWP(100), and environmental impact in EcoPoints. The green gas production pathway operates on a mass fraction of 50{\%} feedstock with 50{\%} manure. The sustainability of the analyzed feedstocks differs substantially, favoring biomass waste flows over, the specially cultivated energy crop, maize. The use of optimization, in the shape of internal energy production, green gas powered trucks, and mitigation can significantly improve the sustainability for all feedstocks, but favors waste materials. Results indicate a possible improvement from an average (P)EROI for all feedstocks of 2.3 up to an average of 7.0 GJ/GJ. The carbon footprint can potentially be reduced from an average of 40 down to 18 kgCO2eq/GJ. The environmental impact can potentially be reduced from an average of 5.6 down to 1.8 Pt/GJ. Internal energy production proved to be the most effective optimization. However, the use of optimization aforementioned will result in les green gas injected into the gas grid as it is partially consumed internally. Overall, the feedstock straw was the most energy efficient, where the feedstock harvest remains proved to be the most environmentally sustainable. Furthermore, transport distances of all feedstocks should not exceed 150 km or emissions and environmental impacts will surpass those of natural gas, used as a reference. Using green gas as a fuel can increase the acceptable transportation range to over 300 km. Within the context aforementioned and from an energy efficiency and sustainable point of view, the anaerobic digestion process should be utilized for processing locally available waste feedstocks with the added advantage of producing energy, which should first be used internally for powering the green gas production process.",
keywords = "anaerobe vergisting, groen gas, biomethaan, levenscyclusanalyse, energiegewassen, organisch afval, anaerobic digestion, green gas, bio-methane, life cycle analysis, energy crops, organic waste",
author = "Frank Pierie and {van Someren}, Christian and Benders, {Ren{\'e} M.J.} and Jan Bekkering and {van Gemert}, Wim and Moll, {Henri C.}",
year = "2015",
month = "12",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.066",
language = "English",
volume = "160",
pages = "456--466",
journal = "Applied Energy",
issn = "0306-2619",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Environmental and energy system analysis of bio-methane production pathways : a comparison between feedstocks and process optimizations. / Pierie, Frank; van Someren, Christian; Benders, René M.J.; Bekkering, Jan; van Gemert, Wim; Moll, Henri C.

In: Applied Energy, Vol. 160, 15.12.2015, p. 456-466.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Environmental and energy system analysis of bio-methane production pathways

T2 - a comparison between feedstocks and process optimizations

AU - Pierie, Frank

AU - van Someren, Christian

AU - Benders, René M.J.

AU - Bekkering, Jan

AU - van Gemert, Wim

AU - Moll, Henri C.

PY - 2015/12/15

Y1 - 2015/12/15

N2 - The energy efficiency and sustainability of an anaerobic green gas production pathway was evaluated, taking into account five biomass feedstocks, optimization of the green gas production pathway, replacement of current waste management pathways by mitigation, and transport of the feedstocks. Sustainability is expressed by three main factors: efficiency in (Process) Energy Returned On Invested (P)EROI, carbon footprint in Global Warming Potential GWP(100), and environmental impact in EcoPoints. The green gas production pathway operates on a mass fraction of 50% feedstock with 50% manure. The sustainability of the analyzed feedstocks differs substantially, favoring biomass waste flows over, the specially cultivated energy crop, maize. The use of optimization, in the shape of internal energy production, green gas powered trucks, and mitigation can significantly improve the sustainability for all feedstocks, but favors waste materials. Results indicate a possible improvement from an average (P)EROI for all feedstocks of 2.3 up to an average of 7.0 GJ/GJ. The carbon footprint can potentially be reduced from an average of 40 down to 18 kgCO2eq/GJ. The environmental impact can potentially be reduced from an average of 5.6 down to 1.8 Pt/GJ. Internal energy production proved to be the most effective optimization. However, the use of optimization aforementioned will result in les green gas injected into the gas grid as it is partially consumed internally. Overall, the feedstock straw was the most energy efficient, where the feedstock harvest remains proved to be the most environmentally sustainable. Furthermore, transport distances of all feedstocks should not exceed 150 km or emissions and environmental impacts will surpass those of natural gas, used as a reference. Using green gas as a fuel can increase the acceptable transportation range to over 300 km. Within the context aforementioned and from an energy efficiency and sustainable point of view, the anaerobic digestion process should be utilized for processing locally available waste feedstocks with the added advantage of producing energy, which should first be used internally for powering the green gas production process.

AB - The energy efficiency and sustainability of an anaerobic green gas production pathway was evaluated, taking into account five biomass feedstocks, optimization of the green gas production pathway, replacement of current waste management pathways by mitigation, and transport of the feedstocks. Sustainability is expressed by three main factors: efficiency in (Process) Energy Returned On Invested (P)EROI, carbon footprint in Global Warming Potential GWP(100), and environmental impact in EcoPoints. The green gas production pathway operates on a mass fraction of 50% feedstock with 50% manure. The sustainability of the analyzed feedstocks differs substantially, favoring biomass waste flows over, the specially cultivated energy crop, maize. The use of optimization, in the shape of internal energy production, green gas powered trucks, and mitigation can significantly improve the sustainability for all feedstocks, but favors waste materials. Results indicate a possible improvement from an average (P)EROI for all feedstocks of 2.3 up to an average of 7.0 GJ/GJ. The carbon footprint can potentially be reduced from an average of 40 down to 18 kgCO2eq/GJ. The environmental impact can potentially be reduced from an average of 5.6 down to 1.8 Pt/GJ. Internal energy production proved to be the most effective optimization. However, the use of optimization aforementioned will result in les green gas injected into the gas grid as it is partially consumed internally. Overall, the feedstock straw was the most energy efficient, where the feedstock harvest remains proved to be the most environmentally sustainable. Furthermore, transport distances of all feedstocks should not exceed 150 km or emissions and environmental impacts will surpass those of natural gas, used as a reference. Using green gas as a fuel can increase the acceptable transportation range to over 300 km. Within the context aforementioned and from an energy efficiency and sustainable point of view, the anaerobic digestion process should be utilized for processing locally available waste feedstocks with the added advantage of producing energy, which should first be used internally for powering the green gas production process.

KW - anaerobe vergisting

KW - groen gas

KW - biomethaan

KW - levenscyclusanalyse

KW - energiegewassen

KW - organisch afval

KW - anaerobic digestion

KW - green gas

KW - bio-methane

KW - life cycle analysis

KW - energy crops

KW - organic waste

UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/environmental-energy-system-analysis-biomethane-production-pathways-comparison-between-feedstocks-pr

U2 - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.066

DO - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.066

M3 - Article

VL - 160

SP - 456

EP - 466

JO - Applied Energy

JF - Applied Energy

SN - 0306-2619

ER -