Effective learning among elite football players: the development of a football-specific self-regulated learning questionnaire

Tynke Toering, Geir Jordet, Anders Ripegutu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The present study aimed to develop a football-specific self-report instrument measuring self-regulated learning in the context of daily practice, which can be used to monitor the extent to which players take responsibility for their own learning. Development of the instrument involved six steps: 1. Literature review based on Zimmerman's (2006) theory of self-regulated learning, 2. Item generation, 3. Item validation, 4. Pilot studies, 5. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and 6. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The instrument was tested for reliability and validity among 204 elite youth football players aged 13-16 years (Mage = 14.6; s = 0.60; 123 boys, 81 girls). The EFA indicated that a five-factor model fitted the observed data best (reflection, evaluation, planning, speaking up, and coaching). However, the CFA showed that a three-factor structure including 22 items produced a satisfactory model fit (reflection, evaluation, and planning; non-normed fit index [NNFI] = 0.96, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.95, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.067). While the self-regulation processes of reflection, evaluation, and planning are strongly related and fit well into one model, other self-regulated learning processes seem to be more individually determined. In conclusion, the questionnaire developed in this study is considered a reliable and valid instrument to measure self-regulated learning among elite football players.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1412-1420
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jun 2013


  • athletes
  • factor analysis
  • football
  • humans
  • learning
  • psychometrics
  • reproducibility of results
  • self efficacy
  • self report
  • soccer
  • social control
  • surveys and questionnaires


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