In 2010, the definition of cachexia was jointly developed by the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) Special Interest Groups (SIG) "Cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases" and "Nutrition in geriatrics". Cachexia was considered as a synonym of disease-related malnutrition (DRM) with inflammation by the ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition. Starting from these concepts and taking into account the available evidence the SIG "Cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases" conducted several meetings throughout 2020-2022 to discuss the similarities and differences between cachexia and DRM, the role of inflammation in DRM, and how it can be assessed. Moreover, in line with the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) framework, in the future the SIG proposes to develop a prediction score to quantify the individual and combined effect(s) of multiple muscle and fat catabolic mechanisms, reduced food intake or assimilation and inflammation, which variably contribute to the cachectic/malnourished phenotype. This DRM/cachexia risk prediction score could consider the factors related to the direct mechanisms of muscle catabolism separately from those related to the reduction of nutrient intake and assimilation. Novel perspectives in the field of DRM with inflammation and cachexia were identified and described in the report.
- disease related malnutrition