Designing a green gas supply to meet regional seasonal demand: an operations research case study

Jan Bekkering, Evert Jan Hengeveld, Wim van Gemert, A.A. Broekhuis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


One of the issues concerning the replacement of natural gas by green gas is the seasonal pattern of the gas demand. When constant production is assumed, this may limit the injected quantity of green gas into a gas grid to the level of the minimum gas demand in summer. A procedure was proposed to increase the
gas demand coverage in a geographical region, i.e., the extent to which natural gas demand is replaced by green gas. This was done by modeling flexibility into farm-scale green gas supply chains. The procedure comprises two steps. In the first step, the types and number of green gas production units are determined,
based on a desired gas demand coverage. The production types comprise time-varying biogas production, non-continuous biogas production (only in winter periods with each digester having a specified production time) and constant production including seasonal gas storage. In the second step locations of production units and injection stations are calculated, using mixed integer linear programming with cost price minimization being the objective. Five scenarios were defined with increasing gas demand coverage, representing a possible future development in natural gas replacement. The results show that production locations differ for each scenario, but are connected to a selection of injection stations, at least in the considered geographical region under the assumed preconditions. The cost price is mainly determined by the type of digesters needed. Increasing gas demand coverage does not necessarily mean a much higher cost price.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)348-358
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2015


  • green gas
  • biomethane
  • balancing supply and demand
  • mixed integer linear programming
  • optimization


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