Bundled care in acute kidney injury in critically ill patients, a before-after educational intervention study

Jacqueline Koeze, Iwan C C van der Horst, Renske Wiersema, Frederik Keus, Eline G M Cox, Jan G Zijlstra, Matijs van Meurs, Willem Dieperink

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) often occurs in critically ill patients. AKI is associated with mortality and morbidity. Interventions focusing on the reduction of AKI are suggested by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guideline. We hypothesized that these educational interventions would improve outcome in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

    METHODS: This was a pragmatic single-centre prospective observational before-after study design in an ICU in a tertiary referral hospital. All consecutive patients admitted to the ICU irrespective their illness were included. A 'Save the Kidney' (STK) bundle was encouraged via an educational intervention targeting health care providers. The educational STK bundle consisted of optimizing the fluid balance (based on urine output, serum lactate levels and/or central venous oxygen saturation), discontinuation of diuretics, maintaining a mean arterial pressure of at least 65 mmHg with the potential use of vasopressors and critical evaluation of the indication and dose of nephrotoxic drugs. The primary outcome was the composite of mortality, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and progression of AKI. Secondary outcomes were the components of the composite outcome the severity of AKI, ICU length of stay and in-hospital mortality.

    MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 451 patients (33%) in the STK group versus 375 patients (29%) in the usual care group, relative risk (RR) 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.3, p < 0.001. Secondary outcomes were, ICU mortality in 6.8% versus 5.6%, (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.90-1.64, p = 0.068), RRT in 1.6% versus 3.6% (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.28-0.76, p = 0.002), and AKI progression in 28% versus 24% (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.35, p = 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Providing education to uniformly apply an AKI care bundle, without measurement of the implementation in a non-selected ICU population, targeted at prevention of AKI progression was not beneficial.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number381
    Number of pages8
    JournalBMC Nephrology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 3 Sept 2020


    • acute kidney injury
    • AKI
    • ICU
    • intensive care units


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