A number of novel nonionic bolaform amphiphiles with nonidentical aldityl head groups, 1-(1-deoxy-D-galactitol-1-ylamino)-6-(1-deoxy-D-glucitol-1-ylamino)hexane, 1-(1-deoxy-D-mannitol-1-ylamino)-6-(1-deoxy-D-glucitol-1-ylamino)hexane, and 1-(1-deoxy-D-galactitol-1-ylamino)-6-(1-deoxy-D-mannitol-1-ylamino)hexane were synthesized by two successive reductive aminations involving 1,6-diaminohexane (1) and the appropriate D-aldohexoses (D-glucose, D-mannose, and D-galactose) using 5% Pd on carbon as the catalyst. Typical reaction conditions were 40 degrees C, 4MPa hydrogen and a reaction time of 4.5 h. The compounds were isolated as white solids in yields ranging from 39% to 72%. The intermediate aminoalditols, 1-(1-deoxy-D-glucitol-1-ylamino)-6-aminohexane and 1-(1-deoxy-D-galactitol-1-ylamino)-6-aminohexane were obtained as off-white solids in 80-85% yield. The bolaform amphiphiles containing 1-deoxy-D-glucitol head group(s) showed markedly lower melting points than the compounds with the 1-deoxy-D-mannitol and 1-deoxy-D-galactitol head groups, due to the presence of 1,3-syn interactions within the carbohydrate moiety. The novel bolaform compounds are potential starting materials for the synthesis of a broad range of gemini surfactants with nonidentical, carbohydrate-based head groups.
- surface-active agents